The Sport for Development Collation Outcomes Model 7. 2.

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The focus of the Sport for Development Collation is to define a collective and sector-led understanding of how to improve the outcomes of sports programmes, provide advice on how to design programmes and promote the use of shared and consistent measurements of impact in an attempt to further strengthen the evidence base in this area (Sport for Development Collation, 2015).

The Sport for Development Collation Outcomes Model (2015) defines outcomes across two continuous sequences - from intrinsic to extrinsic, and from individual to social. The two sequences reflect the strong evidence that links emotional skills and behaviours to positive outcomes in other areas of life.

Sport programme outcomes can either be intrinsic or extrinsic, for example a programme can support a person to increase essential and intrinsic elements of their nature (self-esteem, managing emotions, motivation), and also support them to develop certain extrinsic behaviours (play sport, be active and healthy, learn and have a job).

Sports programmes deliver outcomes for the individual person or for social groups and communities. For example, a programme can change an individual’s emotional skills and behaviours, and as a result influence their family lives, communities and wider society.

The model identifies four distinct groups of outcomes:

  • Social, emotional and cognitive capabilities
  • Individual achievements and behaviours
  • Inter-personal relationships
  • Benefits to society
Figure 15: The Sport for Development Collation Outcomes Model (2015, adapted from: https://londonfunders.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/SfD%20Framework_0.pdf)

Figure 15: The Sport for Development Collation Outcomes Model (2015, adapted from: https://londonfunders.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/SfD%20Framework_0.pdf)

Definitions of the outcomes identified in each section can be found below:

Social, emotional and cognitive skills

Self-efficacy*

Perceived self-confidence in their current abilities and future tasks.
It is task specific; a person can view themselves as good at one task but not another.
A person’s sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how they approach goals, tasks and challenges. It involves recognition that they can make a difference to their own life

Self- esteem

An individual’s overall sense of self-worth (personal value), self-respect, selfperception and self-awareness. It involves beliefs about the self, such as appearance (body image), emotions and behaviours

Motivation

The process that initiates, guides and maintains an individual’s goal oriented behaviour. Motivation is what causes a person to act and achieve something:
a person’s ambitions and aspirations. Sometimes individuals are motivated by personal gratification and other times for external rewards (such as money, recognition or praise). Motivation involves initiating action (active initiative) and continued effort even though obstacles may exist (determination)

Managing emotions

An individual’s ability to recognise their emotions and their effects (selfawareness) by examining and regulating emotions, thoughts and resulting actions (self-reflection, self-management) and keeping disruptive emotions and impulses in check (self-control, self-regulation, self-discipline)

Resilience

An individual’s perseverance and persistence when faced with obstacles (grit) and their flexibility in handling change (adapting, coping)

Social skills

How an individual interacts and relates to others. It can apply to simple social contexts and work environments. It relates to confidence in social interactions (social competence), forming relationships, working effectively in teams and interpreting others. It includes the ability to lead peers and be a role model, and to empathise and motivate others. It also includes communication skills such as expressing, presenting and listening

Cognitive functioning

The mental processes (such as perception, attention, memory and decisionmaking) involved in an individual’s problem-solving, time management, critical thinking, creativity and intellectual flexibility

Individual achievements and behaviours

Increased physical wellbeing

Improved functional fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, muscular strength, adiposity/ body composition; cholesterol levels, bone health, joint health and immune system function

Improved mental wellbeing

Improved mood, feelings of happiness and life satisfaction, and reduced levels of stress and anxiety

Sustained participation in sport/physical activity

Increased intrinsic motivation for physical activity; creation of sporting habits; and belief that ‘sport is for them’

Positive health behaviour

Improved diet (healthy eating), safe sex, reduced substance misuse, and smoking cessation

Reduced anti-social behaviour

Improved pro-social values and reduction of behaviour likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to others. Increased positive social interactions

Improved attitudes to learning and attendance to school

Improved engagement with school; improved behaviour in school; reduced abenteeism

Improved educational attainment and achieving qualifications

Improved learning, academic performance, attainment at school and achievement of qualifications

Enhanced career prospects

In a secure job or accessing training opportunity; improved skills and experience

More securely housed

Adequate and sustained accommodation

Inter-personal relationships

Increased social capital and trust*

Social capital describes the pattern and intensity of formal and informal networks among people and the shared values which arise from those networks. Aspects of social capital include increased levels of trust, increased membership of various groups and improved access to networks and amount of social contact individuals have in their lives. Different types of social capital can be described in terms of different types of networks:

Bonding social capital describes closer connections between people and is characterised by strong bond

Bridging social capital describes more distant connections between people and is characterised by weaker, but more cross-cutting ties

Linking social capital describes connections with people in positions of power and is characterised by relations between those within a hierarchy where there are differing levels of power

Increased volunteering

Frequent activity that involves spending time, unpaid, doing something that aims to benefit the environment or someone (individuals or groups) other than, or in addition to, close relatives. Volunteering must be a choice freely made by each individual

Increased community cohesion and spirit

A cohesive community is one where there is a common vision and a sense of belonging for all communities; the diversity of people’s different backgrounds and circumstances is appreciated and positively valued; and those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities

Positive parenting

Improved parenting skills and styles, improved parent mental well-being, reduced behaviour difficulties in children

Benefits to society

Less need for health services

Improvement in physical health by increasing fitness and reducing obesity; preventing a number of chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes, some cancers, strokes, osteoporosis, hypertension); and providing therapeutic benefits for the management of existing diseases and illnesses. Improvement in mental health by lowering the risk of depression; managing anxiety and stress; increasing an overall sense of wellbeing; and helping with some systems of clinically diagnosed personality disorders (such as schizophrenia)

Contribution to economy through participation in the labour market

Healthy employment market; increased productivity for goods and services; increased innovation and new businesses; and increased revenue gerenated through taxable income

Less dependance on welfare

More people better able to meet the expenses of daily living for a prolonged period of time and not be reliant on government welfare benefits (such as heating and housing benefits, Jobseeker’s Allowance and low-income benefits)

Not subject to the criminal justice system

Improvement in pro-social behaviour, reduction in crime and reduction in anti-social behaviour particularly through lower levels of recidivism, drunk driving, use of illegal drugs, crime and suspension from school, property crime, shoplifting and juvenile crime

Strengthened community through leadership and democratic participation

Increased civic engagement (citizens participate in the life of a community in order to improve conditions for others or to help shape the community’s future); and greater social cohesion

Increased fairness and equality

Improved equality of opportunity and reduced stigma and discrimination for all, at work, in public, social and political life, and in people’s life chances

Figure 16:. (i-iv) Definitions of the Sport for Development Collation Outcomes (2015, retrieved from: https://londonfunders.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/SfD%20Framework_0.pdf)

Dugdill & Stratton (2007) highlighted the RE-AIM framework planning tool as a useful way for practitioners to think about structuring their evaluation:

  • Reach - Who did the intervention reach? – e.g. monitoring of participant numbers through registers, post codes, questionnaires, facility usage.
  • Effectiveness - How effective was the intervention at meeting its aims and objectives? – e.g. physical activity increase, decrease in body mass index or increasing the contemplation to become physically active.
  • Adoption – Have significant parts of the intervention been adopted elsewhere? -e.g. programme has been adopted by other organisations.
  • Implementation - How was the intervention implemented and managed? How was the intervention funded? What skills did the staff have?
  • Monitoring: What were the monitoring and evaluation strategies used to assess the quality of the intervention? Is the intervention sustainable?